Pendleton, Oregon
City
Main Street in Downtown Pendleton
Main Street in Downtown Pendleton
Motto: The Real West
Location in Oregon
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139Coordinates: 45°40′11″N 118°47′29″W / 45.66972°N 118.79139°W / 45.66972; -118.79139
Country United States
State Oregon
County Umatilla
Incorporated 1880
Government
   Mayor Phillip Houk
Area[1]
   Total 10.52 sq mi (27.25 km2)
   Land 10.52 sq mi (27.25 km2)
   Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation 1,200 ft (365.8 m)
Population (2010)[2]
   Total 16,612
   Estimate (2012[3]) 16,838
   Density 1,579.1/sq mi (609.7/km2)
Time zone Pacific (UTC-8)
   Summer (DST) Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code 97801
Area code(s) 458 and 541
FIPS code 41-57150[4]
GNIS feature ID 1125283[5]
Website www.pendleton.or.us

Pendleton / p n lt n/ is a city in Umatilla County, Oregon, United States. Developed along the Umatilla River, Pendleton was named in 1868 by the county commissioners for George H. Pendleton, Democratic candidate for Vice-President in the 1864 presidential campaign.[6] The population was 16,612 at the 2010 census.[7] The city is the county seat of Umatilla County.[8]

Pendleton is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Pendleton-Hermiston Micropolitan Statistical Area. This micropolitan area covers Morrow and Umatilla counties[9] and had a combined population of 87,062 at the 2010 census.[4]

History

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Northwest Pendleton

A European-American commercial center began to develop here in 1851, when Dr. William C. McKay established a trading post at the mouth of McKay Creek. A United States Post Office named Marshall (for the owner, and sometime gambler, of another local store) was established April 21, 1865, and later renamed Pendleton. The city was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 25, 1880.[10]

By 1900, Pendleton had a population of 4,406 and was the fourth-largest city in Oregon. The Pendleton Woolen Mills and Pendleton Round Up became features of the city captured in early paintings by Walter S. Bowman. Like many cities in Eastern Oregon, where thousands of Chinese immigrant workers built the transcontinental railroad, it had a flourishing Chinatown that developed as the workers settled here. The sector is supposed to have been underlain by a network of tunnels, which are now a tourist attraction. The authenticity as a Chinese tunnel system has been questioned.[11]

The town is the cultural center of Eastern Oregon.[12] Pendleton's "Old town" is listed as a Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) have their property nearby. They have established the Wild Horse Casino and golf course on the reservation to generate revenue for development and welfare. They have also built the Tam stslikt Cultural Institute, for education and interpretation of their cultures.[12]

Economy

Pendleton Woolen Mills, founded in 1893, is known worldwide as a maker of fine Indian trading blankets and men's plaid shirts, as well as an assortment of related wool goods for women and children as well.[13] St. Anthony Hospital, a 25-bed medical center, is the only hospital in the city.[14]

Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution (EOCI) in Pendleton is the only place in Oregon where inmates make "Prison Blues" denim clothing. The prison also operates a commercial laundry serving customers that include EOCI, the Snake River Correctional Institution, Pendleton High School, a local flour mill, and other entities. In addition, some EOCI inmates work as clerks or have jobs in food service or maintenance.[15]

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.52 square miles (27.25 km2), all of it land.[1]

The city was built on both sides of the Umatilla River, which has periodically flooded and caused some damage. In the beginning, the river was vital as a transportation and trading route for settlers, as well as a water and power source. It connected the city to the Columbia River.

Pendleton has a semi-arid climate (K ppen BSk) with short, cool winters and hot summers. Pendleton had the highest temperature recorded in Oregon at 119 °F (48 °C) on August 10, 1898.[16]

Climate data for Pendleton Municipal Airport (1981 2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
(22)
76
(24)
83
(28)
95
(35)
103
(39)
108
(42)
114
(46)
119
(48)
104
(40)
93
(34)
80
(27)
75
(24)
119
(48)
Average high °F (°C) 41.8
(5.4)
46.8
(8.2)
55.2
(12.9)
62.1
(16.7)
70.0
(21.1)
78.2
(25.7)
88.0
(31.1)
86.8
(30.4)
77.4
(25.2)
63.7
(17.6)
49.2
(9.6)
39.5
(4.2)
63.2
(17.3)
Average low °F (°C) 28.8
( 1.8)
30.3
( 0.9)
35.0
(1.7)
39.2
(4)
45.6
(7.6)
51.5
(10.8)
57.2
(14)
56.8
(13.8)
49.4
(9.7)
40.1
(4.5)
33.4
(0.8)
27.0
( 2.8)
41.2
(5.1)
Record low °F (°C) 26
( 32)
21
( 29)
1
( 17)
17
( 8)
22
( 6)
28
( 2)
38
(3)
30
( 1)
21
( 6)
11
( 12)
13
( 25)
28
( 33)
28
( 33)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.44
(36.6)
1.11
(28.2)
1.32
(33.5)
1.19
(30.2)
1.34
(34)
.98
(24.9)
.32
(8.1)
.38
(9.7)
.57
(14.5)
1.01
(25.7)
1.52
(38.6)
1.47
(37.3)
12.65
(321.3)
Snowfall inches (cm) 3.7
(9.4)
3.2
(8.1)
.6
(1.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.1
(0.3)
1.4
(3.6)
5.8
(14.7)
14.8
(37.6)
Avg. precipitation days ( 0.01 in) 12.1 9.3 11.6 9.0 9.3 6.3 2.9 2.4 3.9 6.8 12.3 12.0 97.9
Avg. snowy days ( 0.1 in) 3.0 1.8 .9 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 1.4 4.1 11.3
Source: NOAA (extremes 1892 present)[17]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop. %
1870 243
1880 730 200.4%
1890 2,506 243.3%
1900 4,406 75.8%
1910 4,460 1.2%
1920 6,837 53.3%
1930 6,621 3.2%
1940 8,847 33.6%
1950 11,774 33.1%
1960 14,434 22.6%
1970 13,197 8.6%
1980 14,521 10.0%
1990 15,126 4.2%
2000 16,354 8.1%
2010 16,612 1.6%
source:[7][18][19]

As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $36,800, and the median income for a family was $47,410. Males had a median income of $31,763 versus $23,858 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,551. About 8.7% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 16,612 people, 6,220 households, and 3,789 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,579.1 inhabitants per square mile (609.7 /km2). There were 6,800 housing units at an average density of 646.4 per square mile (249.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.3% White, 1.4% African American, 3.2% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, and 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.7% of the population.

There were 6,220 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.1% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.96.

The median age in the city was 36.9 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 53.4% male and 46.6% female.

Arts and culture

Historic Rainbow Cafe in downtown Pendleton (before 2006 facade restoration)

Annual events

In addition to the woolen mills, Pendleton is also famous for its annual rodeo, the Pendleton Round-Up.[20] First held in 1910, it is part of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) sanctioned rodeo circuit. In 1999, the Pendleton Round-Up Association added a two night Professional Bull Riders Classic to the Annual events. The rodeo is noted for being the only PRCA ever held on a grass field.[21]

The Pendleton Christmas Carriage Parade began in 2007 and occurs midday every year on the first Saturday of December.[citation needed] Riders, travois, and carriages with costumed drivers represent the history of the region, and carolers also perform.[citation needed] The Festival of Trees follows on the same evening.[citation needed]

Museums and other points of interest

Local arts institutions include the Pendleton Center for the Arts (in the town's old Carnegie Library building) and Crow's Shadow Institute of the Arts on the nearby Umatilla Indian Reservation.

The Pendleton Farmers' Market began in 2002 and operates mid-May thru mid-October, on Fridays from 4-7pm on Pendleton's Main Street. Featuring farmers from the Columbia Plateau, handmade crafts, live music, and food vendors. Vendors call it the largest and friendliest market in northeast Oregon. The Market accepts SNAP and Farm Direct Nutrition Coupons/Vouchers as well as debit cards.

Sports and recreation

Every year since 1964, Pendleton has hosted the Oregon School Activities Association 2A basketball tournament.[citation needed] It is held in the Pendleton Convention Center.

The Pendleton Aquatic Center opened in 1996.[22]

Transportation

Exit 213 off Interstate 84 into downtown Pendleton, Pendleton Woolen Mills,[23] Walla Walla, Washington[24] and St Anthony's Hospital among other destinations.

Highways serving Pendleton include Interstate 84 and U.S. Route 30 running east-west and U.S. Route 395 running north-south. The city is also served by Oregon Route 37 and Oregon Route 11.

Pendleton is on the La Grande Subdivision of the Union Pacific Railroad, constructed originally through the area in the 1870s as the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company.[citation needed] Between 1977 and 1997, the city was a regular stop along the former route of Amtrak's Pioneer between Chicago, Salt Lake City, Portland and Seattle.[citation needed]

Regional commercial aviation service is through Eastern Oregon Regional Airport, 3 miles (5 km) outside Pendleton. The airport is owned by the City of Pendleton. SeaPort Airlines schedules three daily flights to and from Portland.

Radio

Notable people

Grain elevators in Pendleton, Oregon

Sister cities

Pendleton has two sister cities:[25]

References

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 2, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "Profile for Pendleton, Oregon". ePodunk. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  9. ^ MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS, Office of Management and Budget, May 11, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
  10. ^ Leeds, W. H. (1899). "Special Laws". The State of Oregon General and Special Laws and Joint Resolutions and Memorials Enacted and Adopted by the Twentieth Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly (Salem, Oregon: State Printer): 747. 
  11. ^ "Asian American Comparative Collection: Asian American Sites and Museum Exhibits in the Pacific Northwest, Great Basin, and Canada". University of Idaho. Retrieved November 14, 2010. "Pendleton Pendleton Underground. An interesting tour of downtown Pendleton basements. However, some guides call them "Chinese tunnels" thus perpetuating a stereotype for which there is no basis in fact. See "Ongoing Research" for a discussion of so-called "Chinese tunnels."" 
  12. ^ a b Scanlan, John. "Pendleton". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Portland State University and the Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved May 20, 2014. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "St. Anthony Hospital". U.S. News & World Report (Best Hospitals). 
  15. ^ "Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution". Oregon Department of Corrections. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Record highest temperatures by state" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. December 2003. Retrieved June 23, 2011. 
  17. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 30, 2013. 
  18. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850 1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 214.
  19. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: Oregon 2000 2007" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 18, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009. 
  20. ^ Furlong, Charles Wellington (August 1916). "The Epic Drama Of The West". Harper's Monthly Magazine. CXXXIII (795): 368. Retrieved August 16, 2009. 
  21. ^ http://pendletonroundup.com/about/history/
  22. ^ http://www.pendleton.or.us/pool%20photos.htm
  23. ^ Gale, Kira (2006). Lewis and Clark Road Trips: Exploring the Trail Across America. River Junction Press LLC. p. 192. ISBN 0-9649315-2-4. Retrieved September 4, 2009. 
  24. ^ Fanselow, Julie (1996). Traveling the Oregon Trail. Falcon. p. 171. ISBN 1-56044-477-0. Retrieved September 4, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Oregon Sister Relationships". Oregon Economic & Community Development Department. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2007. 

External links

C21 Properties In this Area
Panoramio Photos