|Perth Amboy, New Jersey|
|City of Perth Amboy|
|Motto: The City by the Bay|
(click image to enlarge; also see: state map)
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Royal charter||August 4, 1718|
|Incorporated||December 21, 1784|
|Reincorporated||April 8, 1844 (included Township)|
|Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|Mayor||Wilda Diaz (term ends December 31, 2016)|
|Total||5.957 sq mi (15.429 km2)|
|Land||4.702 sq mi (12.178 km2)|
|Water||1.255 sq mi (3.251 km2) 21.07%|
|Area rank||258th of 566 in state |
13th of 25 in county
|Elevation||62 ft (19 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|Rank||33rd of 566 in state |
6th of 25 in county
|Density||10,806.8/sq mi (4,172.5/km2)|
|Density rank||29th of 566 in state |
1st of 25 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0885349|
Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,814, reflecting an increase of 3,511 (+7.4%) from the 47,303 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,336 (+12.7%) from the 41,967 counted in the 1990 Census. Perth Amboy is known as the "City by the Bay," referring to Raritan Bay.
The Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city is built "Ompoge" meaning "level ground". When settled in 1684 the new city was dubbed New Perth in honor of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the associates of a company of Scottish proprietaries. The Algonquian language name persisted, corrupted to Ambo, or Point Amboy, and eventually a combination of the native and colonial names emerged, also appearing in South Amboy.
Perth Amboy was first settled around 1683 by Scottish colonialists who had been recruited to inhabit the share of the East Jersey colony owned by Robert Barclay, a Quaker who would later become the absentee governor of the province.
Perth Amboy was formed by Royal charter on August 4, 1718, within various townships and again by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on December 21, 1784, within Perth Amboy Township and from part of Woodbridge Township. Perth Amboy Township was formed on October 31, 1693, and was enlarged during the 1720s to encompass Perth Amboy city. Perth Amboy Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships on February 21, 1798. The township was absorbed by Perth Amboy city on April 8, 1844.
Perth Amboy served as a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 until 1776. In 1684, Perth Amboy became the capital of East Jersey and remained the capital until the union of East and West Jersey in 1702, and became an alternate colonial capital with Burlington until 1776. A few of the buildings from this early period can still be seen today. Most notably, the Proprietary House, the home of William Franklin, the last Royal Governor of New Jersey and estranged son of Benjamin Franklin, still stands in the waterfront area of the city. St. Peter's Church was founded by the first Episcopal congregation in the state in 1718. Its current building, from 1875, is surrounded by a graveyard of early inhabitants and displays a collection of stained-glass windows with religious scenes as well as early depictions of New Jersey receiving her charter and a meeting between William Franklin and his father, Ben. Perth Amboy City Hall, first built as a courthouse in 1714, survived major fires in 1731 and 1764 and is the oldest city hall in continuous use in the United States. The Kearny Cottage, moved from its original location, is a remaining example of 18th vernacular architecture.
During the colonial period and for a significant time thereafter, Perth Amboy was an important way-station for travelers between New York City and Philadelphia, as it was the site of a ferry that crossed the Arthur Kill to Tottenville, Staten Island. Regular service began in 1709. This ferry became less important when the Outerbridge Crossing opened in 1928, but continued to operate until 1963. The Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was restored in 1998 to its 1904 appearance. A replica of the ticket office has been constructed and is used as a small museum.
By the middle of the 19th century, immigration and industrialization transformed Perth Amboy. Factories such as A. Hall and Sons Terra Cotta, Guggenheim and Sons and the Copper Works Smelting Company fueled a thriving downtown and employed many area residents. Growth was further stimulated by becoming the tidewater terminal for the Lehigh Valley Railroad and a coal shipping point. Perth Amboy developed tightly knit and insular ethnic neighborhoods such as Budapest, Dublin, and Chickentown. Immigrants from Denmark, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Russia, and Austria quickly dominated the factory jobs.
In 1914, Perth Amboy had a baseball team called the Pacers; they only played for one season. In late August 1923 a violent riot by an estimated 6,000 persons shook Perth Amboy when the Ku Klux Klan attempted to organize a meeting in the city.
The city was also a resort town in the 19th century and early 20th century, located on the northern edge of the Raritan Bayshore. However, since the early 1990s Perth Amboy has seen redevelopment. Small businesses have started to open up, and with the presence of an Urban Enterprise Zone. The waterfront has also seen a rebirth. The marina has been extended, there are new promenades, parks, and housing overlooking the bay.
Humorist James Thurber's biography My Life and Hard Times the chapter "More Alarms at Night" involves Perth Amboy. One night during his adolescence in Ohio, young Thurber is unable to go to sleep because he cannot remember the name of this New Jersey community. He wakens his father and demands that he start naming towns in New Jersey. When the startled father names several towns with single-word names, Thurber replies that the name he is seeking is "two words, like helter skelter". This convinces his father that Thurber has become dangerously insane. Thurber also wrote the story later made into the film The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, about an "inconsequential guy from Perth Amboy, New Jersey".
Perth Amboy is located at United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 5.957 square miles (15.429 km2), of which, 4.702 square miles (12.178 km2) of it is land and 1.255 square miles (3.251 km2) of it (21.07%) is water.(40.52016,-74.271331). According to the
Perth Amboy, and South Amboy across the Raritan River, are collectively referred to as The Amboys. Signage for Exit 11 on the New Jersey Turnpike refers to "The Amboys" as a destination. The Amboys are the northern limit of the area informally referred to as the Bayshore.
Perth Amboy borders Woodbridge Township (adjacent by land to the north and west), Sayreville (to the southwest, across the Raritan River), South Amboy (south across the upper reaches of Raritan Bay, directly connected only by rail), and the New York City borough of Staten Island (east across the Arthur Kill).
Perth Amboy sits on a geological layer of clay several hundred feet thick. Consequently, clay mining and factories such as A. Hall and Sons Terra Cotta located in Perth Amboy in the late 19th century.
In the September 2005 issue, Golf Magazine named Perth Amboy the unofficial "Golf Capital of the U.S.," despite the fact that there are no golf courses within the city limits, citing the city's access to 25 of the magazine's Top 100 Golf Courses in the U.S., which can be found within 150 mi (240 km) of Perth Amboy.
|Climate data for Perth Amboy, New Jersey|
|Average high °F (°C)||39 |
|Average low °F (°C)||23 |
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.63 |
|Population sources:1790-1920 |
1840 1850-1870 1850
1870 1880-1890 1850-1930
1930-1990 2000 2010
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 50,814 people, 15,419 households, and 11,456 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,806.8 inhabitants per square mile (4,172.5 /km2). There were 16,556 housing units at an average density of 3,521.0 per square mile (1,359.5 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 50.26% (25,541) White, 10.54% (5,358) Black or African American, 1.10% (561) Native American, 1.69% (859) Asian, 0.05% (27) Pacific Islander, 30.77% (15,634) from other races, and 5.58% (2,834) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 78.10% (39,685) of the population. The city's Hispanic population was the second-highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey as of the 2010 Census, ranked behind Union City with 84.7%.
There were 15,419 households of which 40.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 24.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.7% were non-families. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.65.
In the city, 27.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.4 years. For every 100 females there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $47,696 (with a margin of error of +/- $3,644) and the median family income was $53,792 (+/- $2,943). Males had a median income of $38,485 (+/- $2,450) versus $30,078 (+/- $3,452) for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,162 (+/-$933). About 16.3% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 47,303 people, 14,562 households, and 10,761 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,892.0 people per square mile (3,820.9/km2). There were 15,236 housing units at an average density of 3,186.2 per square mile (1,230.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 46.41% White, 10.04% African American, 0.70% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 35.59% from other races, and 5.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 69.83% of the population.
There were 14,562 households out of which 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 21.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.1% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.63.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,608, and the median income for a family was $40,740. Males had a median income of $29,399 versus $21,954 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,989. About 14.3% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.1% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over.
In 2000, 27.79% of Perth Amboy residents identified themselves as being of Puerto Rican ancestry, the fifth highest concentration of Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland of those municipalities with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. In the same census, 18.81% of Perth Amboy residents identified themselves as being of Dominican ancestry, the third highest concentration in the country of Dominicans in the United States after Haverstraw, New York and Lawrence, Massachusetts using the same criteria. The city is one of many U.S. communities with a majority Hispanic population.
Perth Amboy features a historic waterfront, which has gone through significant revitalization. This is where the city was first settled and one of the few places left in New Jersey that has a historic and marina culture surrounded by water. Local attractions include the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip, two small museums, an art gallery, a yacht club, and a marina. Near the marina lies a park with a small bandshell. On Sunday afternoons in the summertime, Perth Amboy hosts the Concerts by the Bay in the park's bandshell. The waterfront is also characterized by a redbrick promenade near the water and many stately Victorian homes, some on hills overlooking the bay and predominating tree lined streets with well-manicured lawns. It has a number of seafood restaurants, as well. The land rises steeply after two blocks. This hides the rest of the town, making the waterfront look like a quiet fishing village. Points of interest on the waterfront include St. Peter's Episcopal Church, and the Proprietary House, which is now the former governor's mansion and houses a museum and some offices. Kearny Cottage, which also has a museum, is here. In addition, this section of Perth Amboy once had a thriving Jewish community with yeshivas, synagogues, kosher butchers and bakers. Today however there are only two synagogues left each with only a few members usually over the age of 55. A project called the Landings at Harborside was to have featured 2,100 residential units along with indoor parking, 150,000 sq ft (14,000 m2) of retail space, a community center, and recreation amenities for the public as well. After meeting with Charles Kushner, the developer who spent two years in prison after being convicted of witness tampering, tax evasion and making illegal campaign contributions, Mayor Wilda Diaz endorsed a scaled-back design concept for the development, allowing Section 8 housing rentals instead of owner-occupied units as originally promised.
Perth Amboy was settled in 1683 and incorporated as a city in 1718. It was founded by English merchants, Scots seeking religious freedom, and French Protestants, who sought to make use of Perth Amboy's harbor to its full potential. Downtown is the main commercial district and is centered on Smith Street. It is an Urban Enterprise Zone and the reduced sales tax rate of 3 % (half of the statewide rate of 7%) funds revitalization of Smith Street with newly planted trees, Victorian streetlights, benches, garbage cans, and redbrick sidewalks. Smith Street is a relatively small shopping center that is only seven blocks wide and bustles with stores catering to working-class customers. The street is flanked by mainly two- to three-story buildings of varied architecture. It also has a lone bank skyscraper which is 10-stories tall called Amboy Towers, located at Five Corners, the intersection of Smith Street, New Brunswick Avenue and State Street. Although there were previously several department stores downtown, the largest today is discount retailer Bargain Man.
Harbortown is a recently built townhouse development on the waterfront and still continues to be expanded. Affordable housing (Section 8) housing along with more affluent homes can be found in Harbortown, an economically and ethnically diverse townhouse development in the city.
Hall Avenue is a neighborhood centered on Hall Avenue east of the New Jersey Transit train tracks. The street, Hall Avenue, itself is not the commercial strip it used to be. Still, although the street has a few pedestrians, it is not deserted. In addition, there is a recently built strip mall on the corner of Hall Avenue and State Street called the "Firehouse Plaza." However, Hall Avenue is now primarily residential. Most of the homes are aging apartments, but there are also some newly constructed homes. Hall Avenue remains the traditional Puerto Rican neighborhood, and it hosts the city's annual Puerto Rican Day Festival, which is held on the same day of the historic Puerto Rican Day Parade in New York City. Rudyk Park is north of Route 440 and features the Roberto Clemente Baseball Field and an industrial park.
The southwestern section is a mainly working-class residential neighborhood with some light industry. The city's largest strip mall is located here. This neighborhood has a large and diversified Hispanic neighborhood with many Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and recently, South Americans. Much of the city's Mexican population also lives in this section. Previously, this section of Perth Amboy had a large Irish population and was once named "Dublin." Following the Irish came the Eastern Europeans, primarily Polish and Hungarian. Most of the housing consists of small one- or two-family houses. The main commercial strip is Smith Street, west of the New Jersey Transit train tracks.
The western section of the waterfront is west of Kearny Avenue. It is an overwhelmingly blue-collar Hispanic neighborhood. Most of the homes are over 100 years old and many are modest row houses. Sadowski Parkway Park lines through the southern end of the neighborhood and has a walkway with a beach. The beach is no longer safe for swimming. The park also hosts the Dominican festival and other festivals during the summer.
State Street is a neighborhood east of the NJ Transit train tracks, north of Fayette Street, and south of Harbortown. Like the southwestern section of Perth Amboy, it is predominantly working-class Hispanic. In addition, this neighborhood had many industries and factories before they moved overseas. The neighborhood is mainly Caribbean Hispanic. This section once had a large Cuban community. The State and Fayette Gardens, an apartment complex in the neighborhood, were called "The Cuban Buildings" at one time. The Landings at Harborside redevelopment project is being constructed in this neighborhood.
Amboy Avenue is a quasi-suburban, working to middle-class neighborhood. It is also referred to as the "Hospital section" or the "High School section" due to the fact that these places are located in the neighborhood. Today most residents are Hispanic; Amboy Avenue once had a strong Italian population.
Maurer is mainly working to middle-class neighborhood that lies in the northern part of Route 440. It is heavily industrial with many oil refineries and brownfields. Like Amboy Avenue, it is quasi-suburban.
Chickentown is a neighborhood in the western part of Route 35 south of Spa Springs, just south of Route 440. It shares many of the same characteristics of Spa Springs but to a lesser extent. The city's largest park, Washington Park, is located here.
Along with the waterfront, Spa Springs, in the northwestern part of the city, remains one of the most attractive and middle-class areas of the city. The population is older. Spa Springs is the wealthiest neighborhood in town and is the most suburban with single-family houses and garages.
The City of Perth Amboy is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government. Members of the City Council are elected to four-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election in even years. The mayor also serves a four-yer term of office, which is up for election the same year that two council seats are up for vote. In October 2010, the City Council voted to shift the city's non-partisan elections from May to November, with the first balloting held in conjunction with the General Election in November 2012.
As of 2013[update], the mayor of Perth Amboy is Wilda Diaz, the first Latina mayor in the history of the state of New Jersey, whose term of office ends on December 31, 2016. She succeeds former mayor and 19th legislative district Assemblyman Joseph Vas, who served as mayor for 18 years. Members of the City Council are Council President Joel Pabon, Sr. (2014), Kenneth L. Gonzalez (2014), Fernandon Irizarry (2016), Lisa Nanton (2016) and William A. Petrick (2014).
Perth Amboy is located in the 6th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 19th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Perth Amboy had been part of the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
New Jersey's Sixth Congressional District is represented by Frank Pallone (D, Long Branch). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg) and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).
The 19th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Joseph Vitale (D, Woodbridge Township) and in the General Assembly by Craig Coughlin (D, Woodbridge Township) and John S. Wisniewski (D, Sayreville). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Middlesex County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members are elected at-large to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held in January, the board selects from among its members a Freeholder Director and Deputy Director. As of 2013[update], Middlesex County's Freeholders (with committee chairmanship, residence and term-end year listed in parentheses) are Freeholder Director Christopher D. Rafano (Ex-officio on all committees; South River, term ends December 31, 2013), Freeholder Deputy Director Ronald G. Rios (County Administration; Carteret, 2015), Carol Barrett Bellante (Finance; Monmouth Junction in South Brunswick, 2014), H. James Polos (Public Safety and Health; Highland Park, 2015), Charles E. Tomaro (Business Development and Education; Edison, 2014) and Blanquita B. Valenti (Community Services; New Brunswick, 2013). The seat of Stephen J. "Pete" Dalina (D-Fords, Woodbridge) Chairperson, Infrastructure Management Committee, is vacant following his death in October 2013 after serving 23 years in office as the longest-serving freeholder in the county. Constitutional officers are County Clerk Elaine M. Flynn (Old Bridge Township), Sheriff Mildred S. Scott (Piscataway) and Surrogate Kevin J. Hoagland (New Brunswick).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 22,737 registered voters in Perth Amboy, of which 9,212 (40.5%) were registered as Democrats, 1,022 (4.5%) were registered as Republicans and 12,500 (55.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 3 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 81.6% of the vote here (10,999 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 16.8% (2,261 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (91 votes), among the 13,473 ballots cast by the city's 23,248 registered voters, for a turnout of 58.0%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 71.0% of the vote here (8,677 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 27.5% (3,359 votes) and other candidates with 0.4% (79 votes), among the 12,223 ballots cast by the city's 21,686 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 56.4.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 69.8% of the vote here (4,645 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.2% (1,611 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 3.4% (228 votes) and other candidates with 0.8% (50 votes), among the 6,654 ballots cast by the city's 22,185 registered voters, yielding a 30.0% turnout.
The Outerbridge Crossing, which opened to traffic on June 29, 1928, is a cantilever bridge over the Arthur Kill that connects Perth Amboy with Staten Island. Known locally as the "Outerbridge", it is part of a popular route on NY-440 / NJ-440 from the south and west to New York City and Long Island. Despite the assumption that the name is derived from its location as the southernmost bridge in New York State and Staten Island, the Outerbridge Crossing was named in honor of Eugenius H. Outerbridge, first Chairman of the Port Authority. The bridge clears the channel by 143 ft (44 m), providing passage for some of the largest of ships entering the Port of New York and New Jersey.
The Victory Bridge carries Route 35 over the Raritan River, connecting Perth Amboy on the north with the borough of Sayreville to the south. A project completed in 2005 replaced a swing bridge that carried four lanes of traffic with twin bridges, each carrying two lanes of traffic, an outside shoulder and a bike lane.
New Jersey Transit buses serve the Port Authority Bus Terminal on the 116 route, Newark on the 62 line, with local service available on the 813, 815, and 817 bus routes. Perth Amboy also has four taxi companies.
Public schools in Perth Amboy are operated by Perth Amboy Public Schools, serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Ignacio Cruz Early Childhood Center (829) and Edmund Hmieleski Jr. Early Childhood Center (402 students) for preschool; Anthony V. Ceres Elementary School (638), James J. Flynn Elementary School (800), Edward J. Patten Elementary School (892), Dr. Herbert N. Richardson 21st Century Elementary School (670) and Robert N. Wilentz Elementary School (879) for grades K-4; Samuel E. Shull Middle School (1,386) and William C. McGinnis Middle School (1,433) for grades 5-8; and Perth Amboy High School (2,539) for grades 9-12.
9.7% of adults over the age of 25 in Perth Amboy have a bachelor's degree or higher, a percentage significantly below the state average.
The Academy for Urban Leadership Charter High School is a public high school serving grades 9-12 open since September 2010, operating independently of the Perth Amboy Public Schools under the terms of a charter granted by the New Jersey Department of Education. Opening to 100 9th graders, the school plans to add a class of 100 students each year until it reaches its goal of 400 students in grades 9-12 by the 2013-14 school year.
In 1903, the Perth Amboy Public Library became the first Carnegie library in the state, made possible through grants from Andrew Carnegie, and donations of local philanthropists. Since 2010 the building is being renovated, and fundraising to increase its size threefold is underway.
Portions of Perth Amboy are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3 % sales tax rate at eligible merchants (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
Notable current and former residents of Perth Amboy include:
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